Slovenia (/sloʊˈviːniə, slə-/ (About this soundlisten) sloh-VEE-nee-ə; Slovene: Slovenija [slɔˈʋèːnija]), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: Republika Slovenija (help·info), abbr.: RS), is a country located in Central Europe at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea to the southwest. Slovenia covers 20,271 square kilometers (7,827 sq mi) and has a population of 2.095 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is now a parliamentary republic and member nation of the European Union, United Nations, and NATO. The capital and largest city is Ljubljana.
Ljubljana (UK: /ˌljuːbˈljɑːnə, ˌlʊbliˈɑːnə/ lewb-LYAH-nə luub-lee-AH-nə, US: /ˌljuːbliˈɑːnə, liˌuː-/ lewb-lee-AH-nə lee-OO-; Slovene: [ljuˈbljàːna], locally also [luˈblàːna]; also known by other historical names) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia. It has been the cultural, educational, economic, political and administrative centre.
During antiquity, a Roman city called Emona stood in the area. Ljubljana itself was first mentioned in the first half of the 12th century. Situated at the middle of a trade route between the northern Adriatic Sea and the Danube region, it was the historical capital of Carniola, one of the Slovene-inhabited parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. It was under Habsburg rule from the Middle Ages until the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918. After World War II, Ljubljana became the capital of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia, part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It retained this status until Slovenia became independent in 1991 and Ljubljana became the capital of the newly formed state.