The Sudan (/suːˈdɑːn/; Arabic: السودان as-Sūdān) or North Sudan, officially the Republic of the Sudan (Arabic: جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, Chad to the west, the Central African Republic to the southwest, South Sudan to the south, Ethiopia to the southeast, Eritrea to the east, and the Red Sea to the northeast. Sudan has a population of 43 million (2018 estimate) and occupies 1,886,068 square kilometres (728,215 square miles), making it Africa’s third-largest country and also the third-largest in the Arab world. It was the largest country in Africa and the Arab world by area before the secession of South Sudan in 2011.
Khartoum or Khartum (/kɑːrˈtuːm/ kar-TOOM; Arabic: الخرطوم, romanized: Al-Khurṭūm) is the capital of Sudan. With a population of 5,274,321, its metropolitan area is the largest in Sudan. Khartoum is located at the confluence of the White Nile, flowing north from Lake Victoria, and the Blue Nile, flowing west from Lake Tana in Ethiopia. The location where the two Niles meet is known as al-Mogran or al-Muqran (المقرن; English: “The Confluence”). From there, the Nile continues to flow north towards Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea.