Cyprus (/ˈsaɪprəs/ (About this soundlisten)), officially called the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, and is located north of Egypt; northwest of Lebanon, Palestine, and Israel; west of Syria; southeast of Greece; and south of Turkey.
Nicosia (/ˌnɪkəˈsiːə/ NIK-ə-SEE-ə; Greek: Λευκωσία, romanized: Lefkosía [lefkoˈsi.a]; Turkish: Lefkoşa [lefˈkoʃa]; Armenian: Նիկոսիա) is the largest city, capital, and seat of government of Cyprus. It is located near the centre of the Mesaoria plain, on the banks of the River Pedieos.
Nicosia is the southeasternmost of all EU member states’ capitals. It has been continuously inhabited for over 4,500 years and has been the capital of Cyprus since the 10th century. The Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities of Nicosia segregated into the south and north of the city respectively in early 1964, following the fighting of the Cyprus crisis of 1963–64 that broke out in the city. This separation became a militarised border between the Republic of Cyprus and Northern Cyprus after Turkey invaded the island of Cyprus in 1974, occupying the north of the island, including northern Nicosia. Today North Nicosia is the capital of Northern Cyprus, a state recognized only by Turkey, that is considered to be occupied Cypriot territory by the international community.
Apart from its legislative and administrative functions, Nicosia has established itself as the island’s financial capital and its main international business centre. In 2018, Nicosia was the 32nd richest city in the world in relative purchasing power.