Mongolia (/mɒnˈɡoʊliə/ (About this soundlisten), Mongolian: Монгол Улс, transcription: Mongol Uls, Traditional Mongolian: ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ, transliteration: Mongγol ulus) is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, which is sometimes used to refer to the current state. It is situated between Russia to the north and China to the south, where it neighbours the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, although only 37 kilometres (23 miles) separate them.
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as, and still called, Ulan Bator /ˌuːlɑːn ˈbɑːtər/ (Mongolian: Улаанбаатар, [ʊɮɑːm.bɑːtʰɑ̆r], literally “Red Hero”), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population as of 2014 was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country’s population. The municipality is in north central Mongolia at an elevation of about 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country’s cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia’s road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system.