Kazakhstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country mainly located in Central Asia with a smaller portion west of the Ural River in Eastern Europe. It covers a land area of 2,724,900 square kilometres (1,052,100 sq mi), and shares land borders with Russia in the north, China in the east, and Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan in the south while also adjoining a large part of the Caspian Sea in the southwest. Kazakhstan does not border Mongolia, although they are only 37 kilometers apart.
Nur-Sultan /ˌnʊərsʊlˈtɑːn/ (Kazakh pronunciation: [nʊɾ sʊltɑn], Cyrillic: Нұр-Сұлтан; see also other names), is the capital city of Kazakhstan. Known between 1998 and 2019 as Astana (Kazakh pronunciation: [ɑstɑnɑ], Cyrillic: Астана) and before that Akmola, it was renamed Nur-Sultan in March 2019, in honour of the departing Kazakh president, Nursultan Nazarbayev. The city lies on the banks of the Ishim River in the north-central part of Kazakhstan, within the Akmola Region, though administered as a city with special status separately from the rest of the region. A 2020 official estimate reported a population of 1,136,008 within the city limits, making it the second-largest city in the country, after Almaty, the previous capital, between 1991 and 1997.