Monaco (/ˈmɒnəkoʊ/ (About this soundlisten); French pronunciation: [mɔnako]),[dubious – discuss] officially the Principality of Monaco (French: Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe. It is bordered by France to the north, east, west and by the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The principality is home to 38,682 residents, of which 9,486 are Monegasque nationals; it is widely recognised for being one of the most expensive and wealthiest places in the world. The official language is French, although Monégasque, Italian and English are spoken and understood by a sizeable group.
Monaco City (French: Monaco-Ville) is the southcentral ward in the Principality of Monaco. Located on a headland that extends into the Mediterranean Sea, it is nicknamed The Rock (French: Le Rocher). The name “Monaco City” is misleading: it is not itself a city, but a historical and statistical district. It holds most of the country’s political and judicial institutions: the Prince’s Palace, the town hall, the government, the National Council (parliament of Monaco), the Municipal Council, the courts and a prison (hanging on The Rock).